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Investment Management

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From Aurapedia, The Finance Encyclopedia

Investment management, often synonymous with asset management, involves the professional handling and oversight of various securities and assets with the aim of meeting specific investment objectives for the benefit of investors. These assets could include a range of holdings such as stocks, bonds, real estate, and other financial instruments.

The primary goal of investment management is to optimize returns for investors while mitigating risks according to their specified investment strategies. This field caters to a diverse range of investors, including institutions like insurance companies, pension funds, corporations, charities, educational establishments, as well as private individuals or families. Management can occur through direct investment contracts or mandates, or through collective investment schemes such as mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), or real estate investment trusts (REITs).

In practice, investment management involves making decisions about what assets to invest in, how to allocate funds across different types of assets, when to buy or sell securities, and how to manage portfolios to achieve the desired outcomes. Investment managers often specialize in various areas such as equity, real assets, alternative investments, or bonds.

There's a distinction between institutional and retail/advisory clients within investment management. Institutional clients typically represent larger entities like corporations or pension funds, while retail or advisory clients are often private individuals or family trusts seeking investment guidance. Professionals offering services to wealthy private investors might refer to their offerings as money management or portfolio management within the context of "private banking." Wealth management, on the other hand, involves a more comprehensive approach that considers various asset management strategies within the broader financial advisory framework.

The term "fund manager" or "investment adviser" in the United States encompasses both the firm providing investment management services and the individual responsible for making decisions regarding fund management. In recent years, the assets professionally managed by investment managers have significantly increased, reaching substantial figures. The industry has seen significant growth, with a few major asset managers collectively overseeing a considerable portion of the assets. However, despite the dominance of major players, the market's concentration, as measured by indices like the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, indicates a moderate level of concentration within the industry. Overall, investment management is a crucial aspect of the financial world, playing a pivotal role in optimizing returns and managing risks for a diverse array of investors and institutions.

Industry scope

The scope of the investment management industry encompasses a wide array of activities and services related to the professional management of various assets and securities. Here are some key aspects that define its scope:

  1. Portfolio Management: This involves the active management of investment portfolios, aiming to achieve specific financial objectives while considering risk tolerance, time horizon, and investment goals.

  2. Asset Allocation: Determining the optimal mix of assets (stocks, bonds, real estate, etc.) within a portfolio to achieve the desired balance between risk and return.

  3. Investment Analysis: Conducting thorough research and analysis of financial markets, securities, industries, and companies to identify potential investment opportunities.

  4. Risk Management: Identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks associated with investments through diversification, hedging strategies, and other risk mitigation techniques.

  5. Client Advisory Services: Providing personalized investment advice and strategies tailored to meet the unique needs and goals of individual clients or institutional investors.

  6. Wealth Management: Offering comprehensive financial services that extend beyond investment management, including tax planning, estate planning, retirement planning, and more, to preserve and grow clients' wealth.

  7. Regulatory Compliance: Adhering to legal and regulatory requirements imposed by governing bodies to ensure transparency, accountability, and ethical conduct in managing client assets.

  8. Technological Integration: Incorporating advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data analytics to enhance investment decision-making, automate processes, and improve client experiences.

  9. Alternative Investments: Managing non-traditional assets like private equity, hedge funds, commodities, and derivatives to diversify portfolios and potentially enhance returns.

  10. Global Market Focus: Operating in an increasingly interconnected global market, investment management involves understanding and navigating international markets, currencies, and geopolitical factors.


The industry's scope is continually evolving, influenced by market trends, technological advancements, regulatory changes, and shifting investor preferences. Investment management professionals must adapt and innovate to effectively navigate these dynamics and deliver value to their clients.

The business of investment management involves a multitude of functions, each critical to its overall operation. Some of these facets include employing professional fund managers, conducting extensive research on individual assets and asset classes, handling dealing and settlement processes, marketing strategies, internal auditing to ensure compliance with regulations, financial control, and the preparation of comprehensive reports for clients. Large financial fund management firms exhibit a high level of complexity due to their scale, involving various specialized roles such as compliance staff, internal auditors, financial controllers, computer experts, and "back office" employees responsible for transaction tracking and fund valuations for numerous clients.

However, there are several key challenges associated with running such businesses:

  1. Revenue Volatility: Revenues are directly tied to market valuations. A significant drop in asset prices can lead to a sharp decline in revenues relative to costs.

  2. Sustainability of Performance: Maintaining above-average fund performance consistently is challenging. During periods of poor performance, clients may lose patience and seek alternative options.

  3. High Cost of Talent: Successful fund managers are in demand and can be expensive. Competitors often headhunt these talented individuals, posing a challenge for firms to retain skilled professionals.

  4. Dependency on Individual Skill: Superior fund performance may be attributed to the unique skills of a specific fund manager. However, clients prefer firm-wide success driven by a unified philosophy and internal discipline rather than relying solely on individual capabilities.

  5. Wealthy Analysts Exiting Corporate Employment: Analysts achieving exceptional returns might accumulate substantial wealth, leading them to manage their personal portfolios instead of working for corporations.


Regarding shareholder representation, institutions often hold significant shareholdings but act as fiduciary agents rather than direct owners. Although shareholders theoretically possess substantial power through voting rights, in practice, they often do not exert influence due to the dispersed ownership structure, with financial institutions sometimes acting on their behalf. There's a growing belief that these institutions should actively engage in influencing companies in which they hold shares to hold management accountable and ensure effective board functioning.

However, determining how institutions should exercise this power poses challenges. Whether to vote based on majority opinion, proportionally split the vote, or respect abstainers' views remains an ongoing debate. Large active managers' actions, such as selling significant positions in a company, can send price signals that contribute to management change. Some institutions accumulate substantial minority shareholdings (10% or more) to pressure management for significant business changes, while others believe in a more persuasive discourse approach rather than directly influencing management decisions. Some major investment managers advocate for a strategy of owning every company without exerting control to foster better investment decisions through a more open relationship with management teams.

The national context greatly influences shareholder representation considerations. For instance, the USA, with its litigious nature, sees shareholders using legal leverage to pressure management, while in Japan, management and labor often tend to prioritize their interests over shareholder rights, operating within a stakeholder mentality emphasizing consensus among various parties.

Size of the global fund management industry 

As of the latest available data up to my last update in January 2022, the global fund management industry had been experiencing steady growth over the years. In 2021, the industry's assets under management (AUM) reached significant figures, reflecting its substantial size and impact within the financial landscape.

At that time, the global fund management industry's assets under management were estimated to be well over $100 trillion USD. This included a wide array of investment vehicles such as mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), pension funds, hedge funds, sovereign wealth funds, and various other types of managed assets.


The industry's growth trajectory was influenced by various factors, including market performance, investment trends, regulatory changes, and shifts in investor preferences. The continuous influx of funds into investment vehicles managed by professionals and institutions contributed to the overall expansion of the global fund management industry.

Please note that the specific figures may have changed since then due to market fluctuations, changes in investor behavior, or other global economic factors. For the most current and precise data regarding the size of the global fund management industry, I recommend referring to recent reports from reputable financial research institutions, industry associations, or financial publications. The three elements—Philosophy, Process, and People (the 3-Ps)—are crucial aspects that help elucidate why a manager or an investment organization may achieve above-average results.


Philosophy encompasses the fundamental beliefs guiding investment decisions. It involves the overarching principles that dictate the manager's approach, such as preferences for growth or value shares, perspectives on market timing, reliance on internal or external research, and supporting these beliefs with evidence-based statements. A clearly defined philosophy forms the bedrock upon which investment decisions are made.


Process refers to how the investment philosophy is put into action. It involves the practical steps taken to implement the overarching beliefs. This includes defining the asset universe considered for investment, the criteria for asset selection and timing of purchases and sales, decision-making protocols (individual or committee-based), and establishing controls to prevent aberrant fund behavior that deviates significantly from the intended strategy.


People are the individuals executing the investment strategy, particularly fund managers and the supporting team. Understanding who comprises the team, their selection criteria, hierarchy, experience, and how well they comprehend and align with the philosophy and process are vital. Longevity and stability within the team are especially crucial, as consistent


performance might not necessarily correlate with the current team if there has been significant turnover.

Ethical Principles can significantly influence investment decisions. Ethical or religious beliefs often guide how money is invested. For instance, Christians may follow Biblical principles, while certain religions may adhere to laws that restrict interest charging. Ethical investment concepts, like those initiated by the Quakers against involvement in the slave trade, have led to the development of ethical investment practices.


Aligning investment strategies with ethical principles allows investors to not only pursue financial gains but also to invest in a manner that resonates with their values and beliefs. Ethical considerations increasingly play a role in investment decisions, giving rise to the field of socially responsible investing (SRI) or Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing, which takes into account ethical, environmental, and social criteria alongside financial returns.

Investment management firms often communicate their approach to the 3-Ps and ethical principles to clients, providing transparency and clarity regarding their investment strategies, decision-making processes, and alignment with clients' ethical considerations.

Portfolio structures

Portfolio structures in investment management refer to the composition and organization of investments within a portfolio. The structure is strategically designed to achieve specific financial objectives while managing risk according to an investor's preferences, goals, and time horizon. Here are several common portfolio structures:

  1. Asset Allocation: This involves dividing the portfolio among different asset classes like stocks, bonds, cash, and alternative investments. The allocation is based on the investor's risk tolerance, investment horizon, and financial goals. For instance, a more risk-averse investor might have a higher allocation to bonds, while someone seeking growth might have a larger allocation to stocks.

  2. Diversification: This strategy involves spreading investments across different securities within each asset class to reduce risk. For example, within stocks, diversification could mean holding shares of various companies across industries or regions.

  3. Balanced or Hybrid Portfolios: These portfolios combine both growth-oriented assets (like stocks) and income-generating assets (like bonds or dividend-paying stocks). They aim to provide a balance between growth potential and income stability.

  4. Factor-Based or Smart Beta Portfolios: These portfolios are constructed based on specific factors or characteristics that historically have led to outperformance, such as value, size, momentum, or low volatility. Smart beta strategies aim to deliver better risk-adjusted returns compared to traditional market-capitalization-weighted indices.

  5. Tactical or Dynamic Asset Allocation: This strategy involves actively adjusting the portfolio's allocation based on short-term market forecasts or economic indicators. It aims to take advantage of short-term opportunities or mitigate potential risks.

  6. Strategic Beta or Factor Investing: Similar to smart beta, this approach seeks to capture specific factors believed to drive returns. It involves a more rules-based and systematic approach to investing.

  7. Passive vs. Active Management: Portfolios can be structured using passive strategies, such as index funds or ETFs that aim to replicate the performance of a specific market index. Active management involves actively selecting and managing investments to outperform a benchmark.

  8. Thematic or Sector-Specific Portfolios: These portfolios focus on specific themes (like renewable energy or technology) or sectors (like healthcare or finance) that are expected to perform well due to industry trends or global developments.

  9. Alternative Investments: Portfolios may include alternative assets like private equity, hedge funds, real estate, commodities, or infrastructure, aiming to diversify and potentially enhance returns beyond traditional asset classes.

The specific structure of a portfolio is highly individualized and depends on various factors, including the investor's risk tolerance, investment goals, time horizon, market conditions, and prevailing economic trends. Investment managers and financial advisors work closely with clients to design portfolios that align with their objectives while effectively managing risk and seeking to optimize returns.

Investment styles 

Asset Allocation:

At the heart of investment management lies the art of asset allocation. It's a strategic dance across various asset classes—stocks, bonds, real estate, and commodities—where investment management firms excel. These assets have distinct market dynamics and interactions, directly influencing the fund's performance. Research suggests that how money is distributed among these assets carries more weight in determining portfolio returns than the choice of individual holdings.


Long-term Returns: The crystal ball of investment lies in examining the long-term returns of different assets. Over extended periods, equities have historically outpaced bonds, while bonds have surpassed cash. The rationale? Equities, being riskier, tend to deliver higher returns, followed by bonds, and then cash, according to financial theory.


Diversification: Diving into the asset allocation pool, fund managers factor in the level of diversification fitting a client's risk appetite. Crafting a portfolio roster based on this entails deciding the percentage of the fund invested in each stock or bond. The theory of portfolio diversification, championed by Markowitz and others, necessitates managing correlation between asset and liability returns and considering internal portfolio volatility and cross-correlations among returns.


Investment Styles: Enter the myriad styles of fund management—an array including growth, value, GARP (growth at a reasonable price), and others. Each style boasts unique traits, followers, and distinct risk attributes that shine in different financial environments. While growth styles thrive when rapidly growing companies are scarce, value styles tend to outshine indices when growth opportunities are abundant.

Performance Measurement: Performance is the golden standard. Institutions meticulously measure fund performance internally and via external performance measurement firms like Russell Investment Group or BI-SAM. They dissect returns against peer groups, indices, and internal controls, often quarterly, showcasing percentage changes from prior periods.


Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement: Beyond returns, performance measurement involves a symphony of risk assessment. Modern portfolio theory's offspring—the Sharpe ratio, information ratio, and alpha—lead this score. These measures, absolute or relative, evaluate portfolio performance against benchmarks and weigh manager skill against market performance. Factor models like Fama-French and Carhart's add depth, considering various factors to decipher portfolio performance more accurately. Portfolio structures in investment management are an intricate tapestry woven from asset allocation strategies, long-term return considerations, diversification nuances, investment styles, and the constant pursuit of accurately measuring performance against risk. The symphony of these elements defines success in the world of investment management, where the conductor's baton guides investors toward their financial symphony's crescendo.

Risk-adjusted performance measurement is a sophisticated yardstick in investment management, going beyond simplistic return figures to factor in the level of risk undertaken to achieve those returns. This approach acknowledges that returns alone don't paint a complete picture of a portfolio's success; understanding how much risk was taken to generate those returns is equally vital.

Several metrics help in assessing risk-adjusted performance:

  1. Sharpe Ratio: This classic measure gauges the excess return earned per unit of total risk (standard deviation) taken on by an investment. A higher Sharpe ratio signifies a better risk-adjusted return.

  2. Information Ratio: This ratio evaluates the ability of an investment manager to outperform a benchmark in relation to the level of risk taken. It measures the manager's skill in generating excess returns compared to a chosen benchmark, factoring in the portfolio's tracking error against that benchmark.

  3. Alpha: Portfolio alpha measures the excess return achieved beyond what could be expected from the market's movement or a benchmark, considering the portfolio's inherent risk. It is a pivotal metric to assess the value added or subtracted by active portfolio management.

  4. Jensen's Alpha: This is a variation of alpha that considers a portfolio's performance in relation to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). It evaluates whether a portfolio's returns exceed the expected returns given its level of risk, focusing on the security market line and the systematic risk (beta).

  5. Fama-French Three-Factor Model: This model expands the evaluation beyond CAPM, incorporating additional factors—market risk, size, and value—to better explain portfolio returns. It helps in understanding whether the portfolio's performance is due to market movements or specific investment choices.

  6. Carhart Four-Factor Model: This model extends the Fama-French model by including a momentum factor, capturing the short-term persistence of returns in addition to market risk, size, and value factors.


These risk-adjusted performance measures provide a more comprehensive evaluation of investment performance by considering the inherent risks taken on by the portfolio manager. They aid in differentiating between returns generated due to market movements and those resulting from the manager's skill or investment strategy. Ultimately, they enable investors to assess whether the portfolio's returns justify the level of risk assumed, providing a more nuanced perspective on investment success.

Money management

Money management, often referred to as asset management or wealth management, is the professional handling of various financial assets and investments to meet specific financial objectives while mitigating risks. It encompasses a range of services designed to optimize the growth and preservation of wealth for individuals, families, businesses, and institutions. Here's a breakdown of what money management entails:

  1. Investment Strategy Development: Money managers work closely with clients to understand their financial goals, risk tolerance, time horizon, and unique circumstances. Based on this information, they create tailored investment strategies to achieve these objectives, whether it's capital appreciation, income generation, or a combination of both.

  2. Portfolio Construction: Money managers build diversified portfolios by allocating assets across various investment vehicles such as stocks, bonds, real estate, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and alternative investments. The aim is to balance risk and return according to the client's preferences and goals.

  3. Risk Management: Managing risk is a crucial aspect of money management. Money managers use different techniques, such as diversification, hedging strategies, and asset allocation, to minimize potential losses while aiming to optimize returns.

  4. Asset Allocation and Rebalancing: Continuous monitoring of market conditions and adjusting asset allocations based on changing economic factors is a key responsibility. Regular rebalancing ensures that the portfolio remains aligned with the client's objectives and risk tolerance.

  5. Financial Planning: Money managers often provide comprehensive financial planning services beyond just investment management. This may include retirement planning, tax planning, estate planning, and other financial aspects to ensure a holistic approach to wealth management.

  6. Client Education and Communication: Money managers communicate regularly with clients, providing updates on portfolio performance, discussing investment decisions, and educating clients about various financial strategies and market conditions.

  7. Performance Monitoring: Money managers rigorously track the performance of client portfolios, benchmarking them against relevant indices or performance goals. They analyze the performance to assess the effectiveness of the investment strategy and make necessary adjustments.

  8. Compliance and Regulatory Adherence: Money managers ensure compliance with legal and regulatory requirements to maintain transparency, protect client interests, and adhere to industry standards.


Money management is a multifaceted discipline that requires expertise in financial markets, economics, risk assessment, and client relations. The primary goal is to optimize the growth of wealth while carefully managing risk according to the client's financial goals and preferences. It's a dynamic field that constantly adapts to market changes and evolving client needs. Money management is a comprehensive approach encompassing expense tracking, budgeting, investing, banking, and tax evaluation to optimize the utilization of finances. Its core aim is to make money work efficiently and yield the highest value for every expenditure made. It involves strategies to ensure that the resources spent align with long-term goals, enhance living standards, and contribute positively to portfolios and assets.

Martin Brian, a notable figure in finance, advocates a prudent approach emphasizing frugality in financial decisions. His ideology urges individuals to discerningly evaluate expenses by:

  1. Prioritizing value over vanity or superficial expenditures.

  2. Opting for cost-effective alternatives while maintaining reasonable quality standards.

  3. Focusing on interest-bearing investments as a preference.

  4. Analyzing the expected benefits of each expense against the overall standard of living.


These techniques, endorsed by influential figures like Buffett, are instrumental in fortifying investments and nurturing portfolios for long-term growth. Money management extends beyond personal finances, as it pertains to business perspectives as well. It involves establishing budgets, meticulous analysis of costs and income, and achieving greater control over financial inflows and outflows. In the realm of trading, effective money management is pivotal for success. It revolves around the concept of trading expectancy, which measures the expected gains or losses per dollar at risk. Even in systems where the probability of losing trades exceeds winning ones, skillful money management can tilt the scales towards profitability. For instance, by strategically setting higher average gains per trade and limiting potential losses, traders can create a system that yields net profits per trade, irrespective of the win or loss probability.

Successful money management in trading entails maximizing winning trades while minimizing losses, creating a scenario where each trade contributes positively to the overall outcome. This approach aims to optimize returns and mitigate risks, a principle integral to prudent financial management in various spheres.


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